Main Causes of Women’s Infertility

Ovulation problems and premature ovarian failure (POF)

Ovulation dysfunction is the main cause of female infertility. It usually occurs due to hormonal production imbalance, problems in the menstrual cycle, or in the ovaries. Lately, the specialists have noticed another problem that has become more and more frequent: premature ovarian failure (during an age in which it is not common to have menopause). The cause is still unknown, but it is believed that it is related to the great amount of toxic substances that we consume and that we have daily contact with (including nicotine and alcohol), to stress, and to some kind of immune system diseases (when the body produces substances that act directly against itself). Women with this ovarian alteration have their normal periods and will only find out that their ovaries are not working as they should, when they do some specific hormone level tests, or when they go through the ovulation induction process, using medication during the treatment to get pregnant, and they have an ovarian response much below the expected or even no response.

Polysystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

It is a disorder caused by imbalance in the hormone production; the PCOS can bring about changes in the menstrual cycle (long time between the periods or even the absence of a menstrual period) that causes ovulation dysfunction and, consequently, difficulties in getting pregnant. Moreover, extra hair may inconveniently increase on face and body, skin may be oily, acne may appear, and excessive fat may be accumulated in the belly.


It is a complex disorder, which cause is still unknown. It develops in the female reproductive system and it has been estimated that 15% of women in fertile age may have this condition. It occurs when the endometrium, the uterus inner layer eliminated during menstruation, is found elsewhere in the body. The ovaries, the fallopian tubes, and even the intestines, the bladder, the vagina and other body parts far from the uterus may be affected. It causes chronic pelvic pain, strong menstrual cramps, besides pain during the sexual intercourse. Adhesions and inflammation in the pelvic region may happen, and it has a negative impact on all the processes that are related to fertilization in a natural way.

Fallopian Tube obstruction

The fallopian tubes are the way the eggs go through from the ovaries into the uterus. It is the place where eggs and sperms meet after the sexual intercourse. It is also the place where embryos start their formation. Therefore, if something obstructs this very small tube, the fertilization is impossible to happen. In fact, the fertilization in vitro laboratories have the role of doing what fallopian tubes should do. Most commonly, the obstruction is due to infections in the female genital system. Chlamydia is one of the microorganisms more frequently found in this process.


The myomas may affect the uterus function, which receives the embryo coming from the fallopian tubes. However, they are rarely the cause of infertility, unless they grow inside the uterus or if they are located in some area that compresses the embryos passage. Most frequently, they are surgically treated. Nowadays there are minimally invasive procedures as well as non-invasive procedures.

Old age

Due to changes in female social behavior such as the entrance in the labor market and the accumulation of tasks, it is common to delay the decision of getting pregnant. However, the ovary starts its aging process from 35 years of age on, decreasing its fertility levels and the chances of getting pregnant from this age on. This is considered one of infertility causes from the present world. Guidance and advice must be made, so that couples will be aware that the female fertility peak occurs between 20 and 30 years of age.

Thyroid disorders

There are many thyroid disorders, but the most common are hypothyroidism (reduction or no production of hormones) and hyperthyroidism (excessive production of hormones). The hormonal imbalance caused by these disorders may affect the ovarian function.

Raised prolactine

Prolactine is a hormone that stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk. Any disorder with prolactine may alter the menstrual cycle and damage ovarian function, consequently interfering in the production of eggs.


Main causes of male infertility